best bookshelf speakers under $300Horror Movie Clipart, Bangla Road Live Camera, Churches For Sale In Orange County, Dell Laptop Turns On But Screen Is Black Windows 10, Maine College Of Art Address, Storm Names 2018/19, Characteristics Of Idealism, Land In Clay County For Sale, Trimming Eugenia Hedge, Autoimmune Paleo Meal Service, " />Horror Movie Clipart, Bangla Road Live Camera, Churches For Sale In Orange County, Dell Laptop Turns On But Screen Is Black Windows 10, Maine College Of Art Address, Storm Names 2018/19, Characteristics Of Idealism, Land In Clay County For Sale, Trimming Eugenia Hedge, Autoimmune Paleo Meal Service, " />

best bookshelf speakers under $300



best bookshelf speakers under $300

We hope this buying guide makes your decision making a lot easier. It’s not a big deal but something to keep in mind if you decide on these speakers. However, it’s different in Q Acoustics as the tweeters are being separated by a compliant suspension system thereby creating a balance with the rhythm. However, its features tend to conflict with the performances of other speakers when placed side by side or used as a surround speaker. 3. Thankfully with the Edifier R2000DB, this is not an issue as the sound is fairly on par with a wired speaker.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'thehifiguide_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_10',106,'0','0'])); With Edifiers latest technology, “eagle-eye”, the tweeter now produces sound clearer than ever. The Q100 is no different as it is most definitely one of the best bookshelf speakers under $300 that can never be a wrong choice no matter which room you are placing it in. However, compared to other speakers on this list, I found that it just wasn’t as appealing to look at and looked chunky or out of place. What we like: Front facing bass ports, awesome build quality, Not so much: Only available in black, less bass response compared to the b6. | The Hifi Guide. Inside, includes nothing but high-quality material, like the aluminum-coated poly-fiber driver reflex which helps produce a crystal clear, deep bass. Bookshelf Speakers Under $300 We Recommend. This is as a result of the well-fitted tweeters and woofers positioning. Under $300 (Read More) After analyzing hundreds of speakers, our experts broke down our favorite ten bookshelf speakers under 300 dollars. This tweeter sits atop a single 5.25″ aluminum woofer which is different from the previous model’s paper woofers. At first glance, the studio 803 appears as though an emotionless face is staring at you without the grilles. That is, without turning up the volume when listening to a song like this. What we like: Direct AUX input, direct sub woofer output, Not so much: Lacking sub bass frequencies, no possibility of own amplifier. The tweeters are crisp and it’s not just audiophiles who notice how well balanced each note is, providing you with a “front-row” experience. Unless of course, your room is situated within Winterfell Castle. We hope this buying guide makes your decision making a lot easier. *As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Read here: Best Klipsch bookshelf speakers. With no hint of doubt, this speaker offers the touch of a premium sound unit. In addition to this, these connection points are capable of seamless sound, engineered by its 5-inch woofers and 1-inch soft-dome tweeter. However, this feature will be really best utilized by movie and audio producers who are mostly interested in soundproofing, clarity and proper bass production. In my opinion, one of the best transient response of any speakers on the list. I live in a small apartment and they are perfect to be used in this small space. Our Pick: Q Acoustics 3020i; Elac debut 2.0 b6.2. The Q Acoustics 3020i is my personal favorite for the way it sounds and its classic style with an edgy appeal but it may not be yours. The all-black exterior adds to the premium feel, making it actually look like an expensive speaker to match its performance. Win anything from speakers, headphones and soundbars, no catch! They contain a 5.25″ driver and a 19mm tweeter but with an unusual setup having the tweeter below the driver. Let’s get started! That does not mean they aren’t still high-quality listening for rock and electronic. Best Bookshelf Speakers under $500 Not only music but you can also enhance your television watching experience by connecting these speakers to your television sets. However, this is less apparent than other speakers in the budget price range. In this case, we will be looking at the best bookshelf speakers under $300. They are available in a few different finishes and I am sure that you would be able to find one that suits your taste and decor. When talking luxury, Edifier stands in with its high gloss finishing. It’s has become a must if you’re looking to get the most out of your movies and thankfully with this speaker, it utilizes it efficiently. They also feature patent-pending connection points lying at the top part of the speaker cabinet. They have made an improvement with the 3020i by increasing the size of the cabinet. The Hifi Guide is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Therefore, these speakers are competent across all styles but they really shine when it comes to certain genres. To go any lower than that, a subwoofer would be needed, but there’s no denying its performance when it comes to the lower frequency range. When listening to music and comparing it to a more premium one, it lacks clarity in vocals and dialogue. These are without a doubt one of the best value speakers you can get for what you pay for them.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thehifiguide_com-banner-1','ezslot_7',110,'0','0'])); These set of speakers truly offer what can be described as a “clean” sound, there is no distortion at any level. The Klipsch RB-51 II are highly sensual speakers with a consumer rating on Amazon of 4.7 stars. All the speakers on this list are high quality but have slight differences and I would recommend testing any product out before making a choice. The R2000DB reaches 55hz with ease, and can even go a couple lower. For a bookshelf speaker, the size is perfect. These speakers offer a crisp sound and are well-balanced. Top Pick: Edifier R2000DB Bookshelf Speakers (Wireless). What we like: Funky retro styling, punchy sound, Not so much: Less warm sound than others, some might consider the style dated. However, once you’ve used them a while, they will really show their true colors. With high-quality materials, you are guaranteed that the performance will be the same. They create a broad sonic stage when coupled with these types of music. If you’re a big fan of classical music or traditional jazz these are the speakers I would recommend for you. The goal for anyone using the speakers is to introduce sound into a space without having intrusive, bulky speakers. The Two Bass Reflex design of the speaker is what ensures that the sound delivered is rich, clear, and detailed. *Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of, Inc. or its affiliates. This goal is accomplished effortlessly, and you will find that even using these with the volume set high there is no distortion. The additional cost allows designers to include more attractive features enabling them to deliver a better audio experience. One problem for consumers wanting bookshelf speakers is finding the best bookshelf speakers under $500. I have a Bachelor's degree in Sound Engineering and I work on producing content for the Hifi Guide in my spare time. That is not to say that you are not able to get an awesome, high fidelity, well-rounded sound from the speakers on this list – see the under $200 list. I would love to have the cash lying around to pick up a pair of Polk Legend L200’s but with a price tag that exceeds what my car cost me, they will have to remain the dream set. When initially testing these speakers, the lows sounded muddy and the tweeters really were just lacking quality. The clarity of the midrange of the Bronze 1 speakers is what really stands out for me and these are a very capable set of bookshelf speakers in spite of some slight details lacking in the highest highs and lowest lows. In addition to this, the frequency range has improved on the previous model. The simple appearance of these speakers may be perfect to sit with an understated setup but don’t expect to turn any heads until you turn them on. I wouldn’t recommend throwing any bookshelf speakers around like a football but they are built to have a long life. What we like: Wide soundstage for classical music, great dynamic balancing, Not so much: Loses a bit of the soundstage with rock, pop, and electronic music can sound a little nasal in the mid-range. Now, it’s our job to guide you to the best speaker. Tinkering with the settings until you find what works best solves the problem, though. These speakers produce a wide soundstage with a clean and clear midrange, sparkling highs and receptive bass tone that does not overpower. Aramid fibers used in the cone ensures that there are accurate signals and aids in the integration of the tweeter. A bookshelf speaker is generally a loud speaker that is generally small enough to be placed on a bookshelf … The b6.2’s soundstage is a lot clearer and more open than it’s predecessor although this does seem to come at the cost of sacrificing some of the bass response. Instead, a small set of speakers … Bookshelf speakers are one of the most practical yet versatile pieces of audio equipment you can have in your home, and upgrading your speakers helps to enhance the whole listening experience. With wonderful highs and deep lows, I cannot recommend these speakers enough. Last update on 2020-12-02 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API. As a producer, this should be your pick for quality audio and movie productions. Only these bookshelf speakers are capable of bringing the same quality performance like an expensive speaker, with slight modifications and in a cheaper rate. The bass response does not go very low, but if you have a subwoofer paired with these, it may just be the best speaker you can get on the list in terms of sound quality. Speakers like these really need to be ‘broken-in’, for lack of a better word. They slightly edge out the competition although it was a close battle. However, they do punch out a clear sound that carries a lot of weight especially considering their size. A growing brand name in audiophile circles, Edifier has been producing great bookshelf speakers under 300 dollars for over two decades. However, we think we’ve provided a diverse list to cover a broad range of price points, with all speakers pushing out some great sound. Reviewed: The Best Bookshelf Speakers Under $500. Check Price On Amazon Read full review. Its all about preference. And for this, we appreciate your wise decision. This is a contributing factor as to why they are my favorite. The drivers and port are flush fitted and are a real compliment to the rest of the design.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thehifiguide_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_3',111,'0','0'])); Although they are an active speaker, to get the best out of them you may need to hook them up to an external amplifier. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Dynamic Range Control (DRC) are internal components of the Edifier tasked, with the responsibility of keeping distortions minimal or fully expelled. While most commonly used in HiFi setups, they make great desktop speakers and are also a perfect candidate for L/R speakers in a home theater system. The speakers have lovely mid-high presence and treble that cuts through the mix well enough to stand out. Compared to previous Q Acoustic models, 3020i spot an extended cabinet sizes, as well as deeper bass. The build quality in the $300 price range is also quite high. Bookshelf speakers make for a wonderful addition to your audio repertoire, especially the best bookshelf speakers under $100 that are affordable and yet epic in performance! The build quality of the Bronze 1 looks and feels strong and heavy with an appealing finish. Klipsch Reference R-51m; Fluance ai60; Monitor Audio Bronze 1; Dali Spektor 1; Polk Audio tsi200; Kanto YU4; MartinLogan LX16; PSB Alpha P3; What can I expect for under $300? Klipsch R-15M Bookshelf Speakers are one of the best bookshelf speakers under $300 by a fair distance. The next in line is the overall design and texture. And the B5.2 is no different here. Check Price: Edifier R1280DB Powered Bluetooth Bookshelf Speakers. The bookshelf speakers are designed with sound quality, purpose, and price in mind. Q Acoustics has been around for a long time and the predecessor to this model was quite a catch in itself. You can find a ‘sweet spot’ by moving them around. These speakers are nice to look at with faux wood-grain sides and either a black or white front face. Live music almost feels as though you are at the gig when listening through the MartinLogan lx16 speakers. It comes in three colors, white, walnut, and black, featuring a matte vinyl finish blessed with a wood grain accent. What we like: Impressive sound scale for the size, lenient with positioning, Not so much: Slight fuzz in songs with very low frequencies at high volumes, sound is a little cold. In fact, I manage to find 2 great options: one is for the passive and for the best powered bookshelf speakers. Best-selling Floor-standing Speakers under $300 Pioneer SP-FS52 Andrew Jones Designed Floor Standing Loudspeaker – Best Floor-Standing Speaker for Bass Lovers Say hi to this Pioneer SP-FS52 Andrew Jones Designed Floor Standing Loudspeaker. These speakers look they are straight out of the ’70s and would suit a matched interior design. You’re here for choosing the right one. The first impression passed by Q Acoustics 3020i is ‘elegance’. Take the leap into a better world and upgrade your home audio to hi-fi. They come with more connections than some of the other speakers in this range including USB and AUX inputs. It does everything the ELAC‌ Debut does in terms of smooth treble and punchy bass but then adds more refinement in the midrange. Find low everyday prices and buy online for delivery or in-store pick-up. * is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to (, or,,, or The follow-up release of the 2.0 series and subsequently the b6.2 model did not disappoint. These speakers come with a 6.5′ arimid fiver woofer and a silk dome tweeter. I will say this is not the best speaker on this list, but it certainly isn’t bad and is perfect if you’re on a budget and looking for a home speaker upgrade. Hi, I'm the owner of the Hifi Guide and have been an audio lover enthusiast for over 16 years. As some of the smallest speakers on this list, they somewhat lack a little behind some of the others in sonic capabilities. In this price range, we are still able to find a wide sound with great bass response and tone. If you are in the market for bookshelf speakers under $300 that have great sound, then one of these presented here should do the trick. From as low as 55hz, all the way up to 20Khz. Whether you’re after something for movies or music for any genre, the RB-51 II will fill your needs with ease.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thehifiguide_com-leader-1','ezslot_11',112,'0','0'])); There is no distortion at any frequency range which provides you with a super clean, powerful sound. For me, the standout is the Q Acoustics 3020i. This is the most awesome dude in the market that made its way to my Top #1. To compare the speakers in this list we just need to be able to analyze parameters such as audio quality, tone, and looks. Choose the best passive bookshelf speakers under 200 for you. Moreover, Q Acoustics bookshelf speakers brace with a Point-to-Point (P2P) technology that gains control of the room and acts as a soundproof for a clean recording. So, instead, I have compiled a list of the 10 best bookshelf speakers in my budget of under $300 and I hope this list can be useful for you too. These controls are bunched together tightly though so it is still impossible to precisely adjust a certain frequency. These bookshelf speakers do not contain many internal elements to aid the lower frequencies, and the bass does tend to lose quality below 100hz. If you require a home theatre, this is very much recommended without a second thought. How Much it Costs: Even at a low price of $529, it’s one of the best bookshelf speakers under $1000. This means you can have multiple sound sources plugged in at once. Edifier manufacturers have provided a wireless remote that allows you any-time access to the bookshelf speaker. At times when music is meant to be soft and quiet, they lack volume. The choice for the Best Bookshelf Speakers Under $500 is wide. Big speakers might give you the meatiest sound, but not everyone has the space, budget or inclination for a set of floorstanders. At times during movies or listening to songs with a strong bassline, it lacked that vibrating feeling so many of us desire. Coming in a sleek wooden exterior, it is sure to give the room a touch of elegance. 8: Micca PB42X Powered Bookshelf Speakers – Best bookshelf speakers under $300. They have Bluetooth, an AUX input as well as RCA and traditional wired phono speaker inputs. Buyers guide for bookshelf speaker under $2000. Shop for bookshelf speakers under $300 at Best Buy. The mid-bass is where the Elac is falling short a little compared to the b6 but due to this, the b6.2’s sound a little more defined. These speakers were a tight contender for the top of my list of best bookshelf speakers. A total of 7 hours went into researching this article to save you time. It is compact enough to be used as a desktop speaker if you have the room, and powerful enough to be used in a medium-size room. We hope this article has helped you in choosing a bookshelf speaker under $300. This makes flexible installations possible whenever you feel it’s better to attach the multi-channel speakers onto the wall. With the dimensions reading at 11.4″H x 6.5″W x 10.75″D, there should be no problem placing these in a wide range of locations to suit your needs. These speakers have a point to point bracing system behind the drivers as well as bracing in the corners to provide a very solid unit with minimal unwanted vibration. The retro appearance of these speakers will appeal to some or turn others off that are after a more modern look. We provide active and passive options for anyone looking for either one. Otherwise, it would have been wearing a good for a nothing gloss finish. These speakers would be the ones I would go for if I were after Bluetooth compatible set. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'thehifiguide_com-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_5',113,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'thehifiguide_com-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_6',113,'0','1'])); However, pairing this speaker with a subwoofer to reach does lower notes is something I recommend to get the most out of them. These are simple yet effective book shelf speakers that come in under $300. My love for audio stemmed from my Dad who was an audio technician, and now I share my knowledge here on this website! There is something sexy about these bookshelf speakers that I can’t quite put my finger on but the open-face design with a choice of finishes to match your preference would probably have you feeling the same way. These speakers come with a remote that has bass and treble control. The output didn’t feel particularly warm to me but that just means the speakers a better equipped to handle electronic music and would be a great addition to your audio setup if that’s what you’re into. The RTi A3, TSi 200 and our favorite, the S20. While tweeters are trying to impress the ears, the vibrating woofers would be distorting sound waves. Jamo bookshelf speakers are small theatrics suitable for any indoor activity demanding for some contemporary booming, and this is sponsored by the Tractrix horn. The speaker is really well balanced between highs and lows, and the tweeter is not too bad too. The size is perfect for bookshelf speakers of 6.7 inches of height, 10.9 inches of width and a dimension of 11.1 inches and shouldn’t be an issue when making space for it. Best budget hi-fi speakers Buying Guide: Welcome to What Hi-Fi? The soundstage of these speakers seems to be a lot more forgiving of the placement of the speakers compared to some others in this price range making them a good buy if you are not fussed on finding a perfect placement or you plan to move the speakers often. From the SVS Ultra with its overwhelming design and performance to the highly affordable Elac B6 with its great sound output and aesthetics, Check out our list of the best speakers. This comes with some pluses and minuses. I listen to a lot of rock so these are so high on my list because of this fact but missed out on the top 2 spots because they are less versatile than the Q Acoustics’ and the Elac’s respective speakers. Small positives like these are what makes a speaker stand out from others. There is always a shadow of doubt when using wireless speakers as there can be latency problems, along with distortion. They do perform as low as to 50hz without any problems, and this will more than likely suffice for most people. These models of bookshelf speakers support large tweeters, creating beautiful, crisp audio output. Due to multi-speaker cinema-style setup is not ideal, or affordable for most people, Dolby Atmos is the solution to this problem. In terms of build and appearance, they offer twin 5.25″ bi-laminate cone woofers with a 1-inch tweeter in the middle and looks good with the grate on or off. Best Cheap Soundbars; Best Soundbars Under $200; Best Soundbars Under $300; Outdoor Speakers. I would recommend these speakers if you are a drummer or have a keen interest in the percussion in tracks as they provide amazing clarity and punchy sound from the drums when listening to all types of music. Although the larger Spektor 2 series speakers are audibly superior to its little brother it is still almost impossible to fault the Spektor 1 speakers. What you hear when you listen to these speakers is a true sound and is how the song was meant to be heard. With Dolby Atmos part of the studio 803, it helps to create a dynamic atmosphere, filled with immersive 3d soundwaves of enjoyment. As with any speaker they are best suited to be used with stands as they lose a little openness and sharpness if placed near a wall. While taking the grill off the front panel definitely improves the look of it, the exterior looks cheap (It is certainly a heavy speaker and durable, it just doesn’t look it). ... You can find some of the best bookshelf speakers for the money under $1000. Of course, a lot of people here only care about sound and if that’s the case, this won’t bother you in the slightest. The Best Under $500:‌ PSB Alpha P5 Bookshelf Speakers ($399) What we love: We consider the PSB‌ Alpha P5 the best bookshelf speaker under $500. It’s all about getting the bang for your buck when purchasing any tech and this is no different. These speakers are more of dedicated sound units.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'thehifiguide_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_0',122,'0','0'])); Here’s our favorite Edifier bookshelf speakers. 's round-up of the best bookshelf speakers you can buy in 2020. The materials used are often similar, if not the same, as more expensive models. If you’ve been a speaker manufacturer since the mid-1940s, you must be doing something right. The JBL Arena B15s is a fantastic mid-range speaker that offers great sound, but the design may not be everyone’s cup of tea. Best bookshelf speakers Buying Guide: Welcome to What Hi-Fi? Our Rating 92/100. Q Acoustics 3020i is not a bad bookshelf speaker all-round. Vocals through these speakers really sparkle and are something to keep in mind if you are very into acoustic singers or bands like the Beatles. The tweeter on these speakers is unique on this list. The Uni-Q driver array alone is worth its weight in gold, and these speakers are a steal. The variety of bookshelf speakers available is huge and so is the price disparity between them. For me, these speakers seemed to be missing a little of the sweetness of the Q Acoustics 3020i which is what pipped them into 2nd on my list but these are still an excellent bookshelf speaker and will also work well in a small room due to the forward-facing bass ports. It is not an easy thing to make someone ears happy with the sounds. Micca MB42X It's a lot less expensive than you think. In addition, these speakers contain good soundstage for recording audio and television productions. A great note about the studio 803 is that the price is budget-friendly, without sacrificing too much quality elsewhere. It will depend on your preference as to which you’d find to be better. Intriguing enough, the sound quality does not fall short of expectations. The Edifier R2000DB is another very well balanced speaker. Best Overall Bookshelf Loudspeaker: Q Acoustics Concept 300 Conclusion. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'thehifiguide_com-box-3','ezslot_12',105,'0','0'])); In this case, we will be looking at the best bookshelf speakers under $300. So, let’s dive in and take a closer look… If you enjoyed this, you may also be interested in our favorite Fluance bookshelf speakers. Home » Bookshelf Speakers – All Price Ranges » Best Bookshelf Speakers Under $300. They come with speaker grills, foam bungs, a user manual, and handling gloves. The first impression every music lover would get from ELAC Debuts is their sizes. The original Elac debut B6, released in 2015 and wowed consumers with its quality. Our top-rated, sleek looking pair of real-wooden speakers called the Polk RTI A3 are proof that you can certainly get a high-end speaker without investing too much in it! There are many great finds at the $500 price point, so if you are looking to amp up your space, read on to compare the best bookshelf speakers under $500! Hopefully, you can be as happy with your eventual purchase as I have been with mine. The Best Bookshelf Speakers For Under $500 in 2020 The bestselling type of speaker for home listening, bookshelf speakers are compact yet capable of delivering rich and room-filling audio. But what they fail to realize is that no matter how many times you upgrade, there will always be an itch to improve the current setup. Filling medium-sized rooms with dynamic sound reproduction, these may just suit the needs of just about every consumer. Many people are so crazy about their speakers that they never mind investing in a system that can be costly than their cars. These are the real baby speakers of the bookshelf speakers on this list at just under 24cm they are great for fitting into tight spaces. The best edifier speakers have lots of features to ensure like frequency range, input power, FM channels, connectivity, sounds quality, and many more before buying. With Bluetooth connection and a remote controller, they cannot be any more convenient. While the sound is superb on these speakers, increasing the treble dial creates a slight hissing sound. Whereas the former are brighter and better suited for home theater applications, the S20 is right up there alongside the … They would be a good choice if you don’t have a lot of room on your shelf for the slightly larger models like the B6.2 or 3020i speakers. This helps to contribute to a volume increase compared to the previous 3020 model by a factor of about 25%. If you don’t need to be blasting high volumes often in your household then these speakers could be perfect for you. The Best Bookshelf Loudspeakers of 2020. It would be tempting to use these speakers as home theater speakers although the small bass drivers make them better suited to near field setup. It’s a given that the less you pay, you’ll have to make sacrifices somewhere. Let’s get started! Offering a very extended mids and highs, and holds fantastic definition. These limitations include but are not limited to volume. We bring to you the best bookshelf speakers under 1000 after a thorough review of multiple bookshelf speakers available on the market. Micca PB42X Powered Bookshelf Speakers can be a great pick for you. There are thousands of 4 and 5-star reviews out there on this particular Edifier and right they are. What we like: Very small so great for limited space areas, tough build, Not so much: Being tiny creates some acoustic limitations, boring to look at. Stylishly understated bookshelf speakers that look especially good with the grille on. Although Elac is not known to have the best designs, the B5.2 certainly exceeds expectations here. If you want to go even lower than $200, you should like the Polk Audio T15 speakers . Often times we are left on a strict budget. This further serves as a frameskip concept that accelerates deep sounds and manages vibrations. They have a very rigid build which almost comes with the territory of being such small speakers. In fact, if not for the limitations caused by them being small they would probably be the number 1 choice. The Point-to-Point (P2P) technology is a great addition by the manufacturers. We tested a whole host of speakers to find which ones will make the best addition to your home stereo system. The Polk Audio tsi200 speakers still provide tight dynamic leveling when listening to those styles of music with a little blurring between the instrumentation. Dialogue is crisp and clear and the tonal balance is splendid. Woofers situate adjacent tweeters and this often introduces a sound conflict.

Horror Movie Clipart, Bangla Road Live Camera, Churches For Sale In Orange County, Dell Laptop Turns On But Screen Is Black Windows 10, Maine College Of Art Address, Storm Names 2018/19, Characteristics Of Idealism, Land In Clay County For Sale, Trimming Eugenia Hedge, Autoimmune Paleo Meal Service,

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *