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advantages of mercerization

02/12/2020

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advantages of mercerization

A wetting agent is included in the mercerizing liquor which reduces mercerization time as a result of successful, uniform and rapid penetration of NaOH. water Article Nitrogen Removal for Liquid-Ammonia Mercerization Wastewater via Partial Nitritation/Anammox Based on Zeolite Sequencing Batch Reactor Lei Zheng 1,2, Yongxing Chen 1,2, Songwei Zhou 1,3, Yuchen Chen 3,4, Xingxing Wang 1,3, Xiaojun Wang 1,2,3, Lijuan Zhang 5 and Zhenguo Chen 1,2,3,5,* 1 School of Environment and Energy, South China University of … A sample of the fabric is dyed in a 1% OWF dye bath and, after dyeing, is compared with a standard dyeing. In commercial mercerization process, the strong NaOH is washed out of cotton by hot water. The advantages of mercerization mainly depend on the process conditions like concentration of caustic, time of impregnation, fabric tension and caustic temperature9. Cotton mercerizing is the most popular operation. Again if the remaining NaOH is not neutralized that will cause harm to human by hydrolyzing of cellulose. Should be available at an economical price. The machines and equipments used in the processes were as follows: Firstly, burning and desizing processes were applied on the fabrics. yarns due to sizing. residual alkali may directly used for scouring. The possible variations in finish may be made even more numerous by the dyeing process. Properties of Cotton. The recommended mercerizing condition is to mercerize at 15% caustic soda solution at 10-20 ํC for 30 seconds. Why are these two fabric samples stiff (each for a different reason)? Washing condition is important after mercerization because the fabric will shrink when washed under slag condition. Instead of 45–50 seconds as with cold mercerizing, the same effect can be obtained in only 25–30 seconds with hot mercerizing. Ammonia treatment results in a more rounded cotton fiber, which scatters light more, in turn resulting in a luster that is less bright.An additional advantage of ammonia mercerization is the absence of alkaline oxy-cellulose that results with caustic treatments, which is evidenced by strength-losses and dyeing variation. Last, the stitch/tension variable can be easily set at any desired level, which in turn controls the fabric properties. They were mercerized according to the plan indicated in Table 5 by using fabric mercerization machine at 60°C and 30°Be NaOH. While mercerization had adverse effects on performance characteristics such as dry and wet breaking strength, tear strength, and flex abrasion resistance of HWM rayon fabrics, liquid ammonia treatment did not degrade these fabrics. To obtain an acceptable mercerizing outcome, cotton fabrics need to be mercerized at concentrations not lower than 10%. If temperature and concentration of caustic soda increase up to a certain limit the tensile strength of cotton increases. Finally the rollers are brought close together to facility the removal of stretched yarn. Cost of wetting agent should be considered before using. 2. 5% margin of error (95% confidence interval) was taken as a basis in all the calculations and the results that are upper than P=0.050 value do not have an effect that has statistical significance. So washing is very important after mercerization and its condition carefully should be maintained. The degree of cleanliness of the textile material is only determined by employing standard accepted testing methods and properly interpreting the data obtained. Mercerization Conditions and Characterized by NIR FT Raman Spectroscopy in Combination with Multivariate Analytical Methods Heléne Almlöf Ambjörnsson,a,* Karla Schenzel,b and Ulf Germgård a Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced commercially in a two-stage process consisting of a mercerization stage followed by an etherification stage. US1482076A US616606A US61660623A US1482076A US 1482076 A US1482076 A US 1482076A US 616606 A US616606 A US 616606A US 61660623 A US61660623 A US 61660623A US 1482076 A US1482076 A US 1482076A Authority US United States Prior art keywords fabric thiocyanate treatment alkali solution Prior art date 1923-02-02 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a … But, for the samples mercerized at temperature higher than 20°C increase in alkali only up to 240 g/l improved dimensional stability. reflected is then compared. The fabrics leave the recuperator through the nip of a pair of squeeze roller. Desized, scoured and bleached cotton fabrics are … Cell – OH Cell – OH + NaOH Cell – ONa + H2O                Cell – ONa + H2O, 75%                                                                            25%. After washing, caustic soda concentration in the fabric must be less than 8%, otherwise shrinkage occurs if tension is reduced. This clarity was not seen in the wet process and values close to each other were observed. In the traditional mercerization process, cotton yarn or fabric Larger dimensional stability of the articles 3. Length wise shrinkage of fabric occurs which minimize the weak links in the fiber. After the yarn is spun, numerous loose ends of fibers produce from the surface of the yarns. The lumen is the Mercerized cotton is stained bluish black and the unmercerized cotton is remains white. Not only does the contraction of the fiber strengthen it, but also the thickening of the diameter due to the expansion already described stiffens the structure of the fiber. Table 7: Results of SPSS analysis related to resistance to shrinkage in the weft (Tests of between-subjects effects). On the other hand, solutions of sodium hydroxide whose concentration is about 29% (wt/vol), i.e. Most of the goods were imported from Germany. In addition, the cotton fibers were converted into a swollen and rough state after mercerization treatment. Larger dyeing affinity 2. Under the low tariff of the Democratic administration from 1893 to 1897, European mercerized cottons were introduced into America, and American manufacturers presently began to produce the same sorts of goods for home consumption. Fabrics mercerized with 10% solution showed same degree of mercerization as the unmercerized fabric but they obtained better dye absorption ability and higher fabric strength and elongation. Extension at break decrease when tension increase. The fabric is entered in the bath of caustic soda solution with two down rollers. * Higher productivity. For cotton knit dyeing; mercerizing is done before dyeing. At the time of his invention, he was a chemist in a large calico printing plant. In order to keep width contraction as low as possible, the fabric is kept under constant tension during the reaction phase. High flexibility to treat small and medium fabric batches (production speed up to 35 – 40 mt/ 1’). The process is continuous. Kidney shaped becomes almost circular (oval shaped) in X-section. Penetration is assisted by the rubber coated rollers which determines the amount of tensiono0n the yarn. The lye concentration is simple to control. 13-15% caustic concentration is applied when dye absorbency is important considered. Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entang... Pretreatment Process for Polyestr/cotton Blended fabric Singeing In singeing the short fibres are burnt off from the surface of the fabri... CHEMICAL BONDING PROCESSES In Chemical bonding process interlocking of fibers are take place by the application of a chemical bind... Filtration is defined as a physical process that removes the particulates from a liquid or gas through a porous filtering media. Bleaching is enough for prepared the fabrics for dyeing and printing but mercerizing is done for adding some advantage to the fabric. It was bleached after the rotation period of 6 hour ended. Sick mink appear to rise from the dead in Denmark. As seen in Table 10, an improvement of 50 – 60% was seen in the direction of the warp compared to the raw fabric in the dobby weave. Not until the later eighties did mercerization become practical, and then for two reasons. Meanwhile, the role of wetting substances is great in the mercerization of raw fabrics especially. The machine is suitable to any kind of woven fabric (heavy, light, 100% cotton, linen, blends) High flexibility to treat small and medium fabric batches (production speed up to 35 – 40 mt/ 1’). Mercerization is therefore an expensive chemical procedure. Mercerization is a pre-treatment or finishing treatment of cellulosic materials with higher concentrated Alkali (NaOH) for short period at lower temperature. adds to the tensile strength of the fabric. If mercerization of material (yarn/fabric) is carried out in grey state i.e. Mercerization without tension gives no luster and causes a considerable shrinkage. (c) Name various tests of mercerization. high. Although both of them take place in mercerization, 75% is on linking’s side through the force of pull. After washing they were dried in drum drier and their shrinking percentage values were measured. Complete fiber cleanliness is not easily achieved. Google Scholar mercerization process. The axial ratio decrease when a cotton Increasing of the lustre 4. Lowe (source: Wikipedia). Appearance is improved through increased luster, a deepening of the color and the production of a transparent look, the feel of the fabric is improved through a resulting soft hand and improved smoothness, and strength and elongation are also improved, along … That is, the sodium hydroxide that is concentrated this much, penetrates inside the micelles (crystallites) and a structure called hydrate cellulose emerges. Generally we know, mercerization is a pre-treatment or finishing treatment of cellulosic materials with higher concentrated Alkali (NaOH) for short period at lower temperature. The main benefit of using 100% mercerized cotton crochet thread is the luster and vibrance you get. Mercerizing is done after bleaching operation. Mercerized cottons likewise figure largely in upholstery goods, draperies, curtains, and coverings. The results of resistance to shrinkage obtained in this study were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 statistical data analysis program in the computer and their statistical significance was calculated. unmercerized cotton fibre have an elliptical cross-section, while it becomes Mercerized fabrics however If caustic conc. The added desirable water handling properties gained are a secondary bonus. As a result improper mercerization occurs and luster also not well. Mercerization gives cotton woven cloth a silky luster, and is the foundation of many improved and beautiful finishes. Its effects of mercerizing liquor should be permanent. This stage of mercerization also has similar type of disadvantages as Mercerization A third process often used with cotton fibers is mercerization, which changes the physical structure of the cotton fiber and thereby its physical properties and appearance. It has been reported that as far as luster, tensile strength and dimensional stability are concerned, hot mercerization can produce better results than normal mercerization for three reasons. When the boll bursts and exposes these fibers to sun and air they dry up and collapse, becoming flatter and ribbon like with alternating left and right spiral twist every two or three turns. The angle of reflection will be 45°, only if the By repeated mercerization-etherification steps, DS values above 1.5 can be obtained, and it has been reported that Kulicke prepared CMC samples with a DS of between 0.7 and nearly 3.0 by a slurry procedure with isopropanol (Kulicke et al. It was obtained that shrinkage values on warp direction were greater than those of weft. One of the known fiber properties of cotton is its softness. Controlled hot stretching following saturation. Mercerization is therefore an expensive chemical procedure. Solutions of sodium hydroxide in the concentration range 16-19 %(wt/vol) appear to be more critical in that a small variation in the concentration causes considerable changes in the properties (moisture regain and BAN) of the mercerized cotton. It is observed that a softer handle is obtained on goods which are mercerized in grey state compared with mercerized after bleaching. The properties of the fibre change by swelling. Available –OH group increase which contribute dye affinity. Mercerization machine that has stabilization section after the caustic chamber, chain frame and a 5 final washing chamber. Since the shrinkage in the fibers increases as the time period increases, the resistance to shrinkage in the weft appears to be higher. The machine is suitable to any kind of woven fabric (heavy, light, 100% cotton, linen, blends). Effect of twist on mercerization is high. Direct Blue No. the twedell meter. Keywords: recovery, caustic soda, mercerization, ceramic membrane, combined membrane filtration 1 INTRODUCTION General industrial textile processes consist of This test is done by using a microscope. Dye absorption increases with the increasing caustic soda concentration up to 13%. Pad-batch machine. At this point the fiber is like a solid cylindrical rod having a central lumen or canal pointing to the tip consisting entirely of cellulose. At the time Mercer introduced these processes, the British cotton trade showed no interest in any of it and it all sat in obscurity for about forty years. Improving to the touch THE ADVANTAGES OF THIS PROCESS ARE: Effects of the chain mercerization of cotton fabric 14. MERCERIZATION MACHINES: MAIN TECHNICAL FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES . However it is recommended that a standard swatch be calibrated so that the actual desired degree of mercerization can be assured. These alterations increase sorption, tensile strength and luster of fibres. Mercerizing also gives cotton cloth increased tensile strength, greater absorptive properties, and, usually, a … Pad Chain Mercerizing Machine 2.... CARDING Carding is the process in which sliver is formed from lap by carding m/c. Another common method of part mercerization is by mercerizing the cotton cloth in stripes. Hence the increase in strength takes Length wise shrinkage of fabric occurs which minimize the weak links in the fabric. If the shade is lighter than standard, the fabric is a lower degree of mercerization; and if darker, it a higher degree of mercerization. stage of process sequence. The important facts to remember are: Fiber is the fundamental unit in either yarn or in cloth. Tensile strength is higher when caustic concentration is 45-54°Tw and temperature is 17°C. Six measurements were done on each sample according to the standard of BS EN 26330 and the average of them was taken. Luster and strength of the fabric increases for mercerizing process. However, at lower concentration at30°C, the treated cotton does not show any barium absorption, but the moisture regain increases, due to the differences in the molecular size of barium hydroxide and water, Table 11: Moisture regain values of cotton yarn mercerized at different temperature. Reaction heat is emitted when mixing the process lye. all wetting agents are not stable to 25% NaOH. ADVANTAGES OF AMMONIA MERCERISATION. Such fabrics are called crepons. The mercerized sample is always more deeply dyed than the unmercerized. As a result, there is an osmotic pressure increases which causes water to enter the fiber until such time as the osmotic pressure is in balance. As a result mercerizing will be better and luster increases. colour of the dyed cloth is brighter and deeper. Deconvolution occurs or convolution twist becomes less. Bleaching is enough for prepared the fabrics for dyeing and printing but mercerizing is done for adding some advantage to the fabric. relatively circular when mercerised. Mercerization details of these fabrics were given in Table 5. Mercerization of cotton enhances fabric sheen, hand, and drape, reduces shrinkage, and improves wrinkle resistance, elasticity, tensile strength, dimensional stability, and color retention by transforming the crystal structure of cellulose and causing the fibers to swell. Mercerization involves exposing cotton to sodium hydroxide. Mercerization Conditions and Characterized by NIR FT Raman Spectroscopy in Combination with Multivariate Analytical Methods Heléne Almlöf Ambjörnsson,a,* Karla Schenzel,b and Ulf Germgård a Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced commercially in a two-stage process consisting of a mercerization stage followed by an etherification stage. In present work composite is fabricated using simple hand lay-up technique which involves following steps: 1. Increase chemical reactivity at low temperature. This dependency is such that the resistance to shrinkage values increases as the period of holding increases. In a good mercerization machine without chain, the time period required for the full impregnation of fibers with the caustic soda flotte is 12 s for dry fabrics and 20 s for wet fabrics. Luster and strength of the fabric increases for mercerizing process. Due to this, the fabric gains luster. In addition, other changes that occur in the fiber include increased surface roughness, enhanced wettability, and decreased moisture absorption.  On the DIMENSA MS the cloth is pinned onto the integrated stenter at the end of the retention compartment. 15.19 Mercerization Uneven mercerisation – Improper tensioning, improper preparation of caustic solution, variation in time and temperature of treatment are the main causes of uneven mercerisation. Fig 11: Cellulose, the polymer of cotton, with a degree of polymerisation, About 5000 cellubiose units (i. e. n=5000). The cotton also loses up to 25% of its length. These hydroxyl groups form the basis for the high hydrogen bonding and orientation found in the fibers. Temperature of the mercerization solution. How this peculiar effect was obtained was for a considerable time a puzzle Americans until they finally discovered that the drawn up effect, the creping, was due to the shrinking by mercerizing of cotton threads inserted at the time of weaving into the woolen fabric, the wool remaining unaffected by the process. This is cotton fiber in its original state. SANDO’s mercerizing machine with a clip-type stenter is capable of applying stronger tension on both warps and wefts compared to chainless types. The In industry, wetting agent is referred as mercerizing oil. We know that mercerizing is a additional process to improve the physical and chemical properties of the cotton yarn or fabric. The method was developed in the 19th century by John Mercer and H.A. The technical data and the prescription are as follows: Prescription                       : 35 ml/l H2O2 50%, 15 ml/l NaOH 480Be, 2 ml/l     Gemsol WA, 2 ml/l Rohstoff ST-OS, 1 ml/l SevalinD. During the mercerization process, the thread or fabric is tightened and the crystals get into the parallel to the axis of the fiber inside of fiber and consequently, the links among the macromolecule chains (H Bridges, Van Der Wall’s forces) increase even more. The yarn must be mounted evenly on the rollers. Mercerisation is a textile finishing treatment for cellulose fabric and yarn, mainly cotton and flax, which improves dye uptake and tear strength, reduces fabric shrinkage, and imparts a silk -like luster. Having realized this, it becomes obvious that long fine staple cottons are best for mercerizing because they can be combed and spun into yarns having a small amount of twist and the individual’s fibers can lye fairly parallel to the lengthwise direction of the yarn. Furthermore, we generally express the One of two rollers is geared to drive anticlockwise or clockwise. Only some chemicals are required for mercerizing. * Ammonia recovery problem, leakages can be dangerous to the personnel involved. The improved lustre of mercerised cotton is due to the production of nearly circular cotton fibres under tension. Then the fabric is washed with cold water in two times. Commonly 0.5-1% of wetting agent is used. So that the impregnation becomes properly. mercerization (Dinand et al. The heat that emerges during the reaction prevents swelling and therefore, float is cooled in order to achieve the best mercerization effect. Between 1895 and 1900 these fabrics had a great vogue in this country. The technical data and prescriptions are as follows: Prescription             : 2.5 g/l Torozym NT, 2 g/l Schnellnetzer KE, 1 g/l, Speed                                    : 70 m/min, Table 2: The properties of the chemicals that were used in removing dressing, Table 3: The properties of the chemicals that were used in the bleaching process, Burner position                   : Vertical – double side, Burner distance                  : 8 mm, pH                                           : 6 – 7, Temperature                       : 60 – 65°C. without scouring and bleaching after desizing it is called grey mercerization. In case of scoured and bleached fabric, wetting agent is not important but using 0.1-0.5% gives better effect. After this the residual alkali may be neutralized with a dilute acid, followed by washing with water to free the fabric from acid. Then fabric is washed with hot water at 70°Cin proper tension. About 30 g of cotton fiber was subjected to NaOH solution treatment for 4 h at room temperature. THE REACTIONS THAT TAKES PLACE IN MERCERIZATION: Since concentrated sodium hydroxide (operational solution that includes chemicals) is used in mercerization process, the reactions that take place with the cellulose fibers are intermolecular reactions. The advantages of a high quality product produced with natural yarns, twists, sharp without pilling even after many washings, without pilling forever. This causes the fibers to swell, and their cross-section changes from kidney-shaped to round. Shrinkage beings (stage 6) and on drying at room temperature a further and final shrinkage occurs (stage 7). It was inserted into a rotation machine for balance and to prevent it from filtering on one side. sample is mercerised. The actual degree of mercerization must be established by using other qualified tests. 1. During the process of scouring there occurs a lateral swelling of the Controlled cooling of the stretched fabric. Both the fibers and the fabric becomes much more pliable, but far less elastic than when saturated with cold concentrated caustic solution. recovery of caustic is some easier as impurities to some extent are removed by International Journal of Textile Science. Two-way ANOVA test was used in the statistical analysis. Mercerization is the treatment of cotton yarns, fabrics and knit goods with cold, strong caustic soda liquor under tension. Mercerization Treatment Mercerization was conducted with one of the two bags of the pre-prepared cotton fibers. Concentrated solutions of caustic soda cause considerable swelling of cotton fiber, the changes in cellulose physical properties being irreversible. It should be soluble in caustic soda solution. … No lye losses occur at changes. Therefore change over to a lower lye concentration is profitable in addition to the covering of immature cotton. But the silk-like luster that we now look for in mercerized cottons had not yet been developed. Table 9: Resistance to shrinkage in twill fabrics. Combined bleaching machine that makes hot bleaching and also has 2 prewashing and 4 final washing chambers. mercerization and commoditization. in grey state. form is passed through 25% NaOH solution and after a time of 40-45 seconds The reason for that is that the fabrics gather a little bit in drying. During its travel in the stenter it meets a constantly decreasing concentration of NaOH solution. The advantage of the counter current principle over co-current principle is that a relatively small volume of wash liquor of high concentration is obtained in the former. Mercerization is the treatment to improve the dyeing and mechanical properties of cotton fabrics. which go in to NaOH solution. Mercerization treatment increases strength, smoothness, resistance to mildew, and also reduces … The fabric enters the washing unit (of chain type of mercerizing machine) with sodium hydroxide solution of 55° Tw strength. hollow part of fibre. Changes in the resistance to shrinkage in the directions of warp and weft in plain weaving fabrics depending on process time period are shown in Figure 4 and 5, respectively. In addition, the same results can be obtained for knitted products in the shape of a tube through special equipment. The automatic lye control permits the addition of fresh lye, water or recovered lye of 20 to 40 °Bé from recycling. The commercial possibilities of this discovery were not overlooked. This gives a large volume of dilute NaOH solution, which cannot be discharge into the drain for economy and pollution point of view. Cross section of mercerized cotton fibers becomes larger and assumes perfectly circular forms as shown in Figure 1. It is also often remarked that the quality of ‘serious’ political journalism is The mangles are of open type, enabling the bowls to be easily changed. The recovery of caustic is some easier as impurities to some extent are removed by desizing. As seen in Table 8, 50 – 60% improvement was seen in the direction of warp compared to the raw fabric. The technical data and the prescription are as follows: Prescription                  : 14.8 g/l Cibacron Blue CR, 5.6 g/l Cibacron Deep Red CD, 12.1 g/l Cibacron yellow CRG, 1 g/l Erkantol AS,     4.8g/l Caustic 48 0Be, 50 g/l Silicate. In the retention compartment of the DIMENSA the proven chainless principle with lifting top rolls is employed. The precipitate CaCO3 may be separated by settling and filtration/decantation. processes such as singeing or mercerization can only be performed on yarns or fabrics. Complete fiber cleanliness is not easily achieved.  On the DIMENSA ML the retention zone consists of a chainless reaction compartment only. Greater tension necessary to prevent shrinkage. mercerization process involved in wet processing of textiles textiles The causes for carrying out grey mercerization are-. The cross-section before mercerization is elliptical while it becomes P. 407) the basic principle of this process is described by the following sequence: In this process the penetration of caustic soda into the fabric and fibers is extremely rapid, through and uniform. Burning and desizing machine in which the operations of burning and desizing are combined. Luster is obtained through the use of tension; and. Mercerization is one of the most important finishing processes of cotton with a strong caustic alkaline solution in order to improve the lustre, hand and other properties. Process, time period and process time period interactions have a statistically significant effect on the resistance to shrinkage of the weft. Drying machine with contact drying system in which exit humidity control is carried out with Pleva equipment and which consists of 20 cylinders that work with steam. The degree of cleanliness of the textile material is only determined by employing standard accepted testing methods and properly interpreting the data obtained. Mercerization A third process often used with cotton fibers is mercerization, which changes the physical structure of the cotton fiber and thereby its … Under the action of concentrated alkaline solutions chemical, physico-chemical and structural modifications of cellulose take place .chemical reactions lead to the formations of alkali cellulose, physical reactions , to intensives swelling of fibers and structural reactions, to a change in the arrangements of units in the cellulose macromolecule. No selvedge to middle differences occurs with the DIMENSA. effect of the mercerization. The main... Alkali Degumming Alkalis hydrolyse protein by attacking the peptide bonds and are said to have severe damaging effect on protei... Waterproof Breathable Fabric: Waterproof breathable fabrics are one of the harsh weather fabrics that protect the wearer without hamp... Degumming of Raw Silk Degumming is at the heart of wet processing of raw silk. The fabric also has smoother and more lustrous look when mercerized under tension. Swelling therefore does not take place only on the fabric surface. The threads or fabrics are rinsed a number of times after it has been subjected to sodium hydroxide. He went on to list a number of these changes, one of which was that caustic soda caused the fiber to swell, become round and straighten out (but it did not impart any change in luster). Solid colors and intense, resistant to washing, rubbing, light, even after being washed several times. It imports gloss to the fibre, increases its hygroscopicity, strength and improves its dye affinity. If yarn twist is high then alkali doesn’t enter easily. The recuperator consists of a cast iron chamber containing two sets of guide rollers, the top row begin driven. Synthetic rubber coated padding roller is placed on guide roller, mounted on ball-bearing to avoid any drag of slip of yarn. This process also depends on the buyer requirement. However, flexibility decreases since the links among macromolecule chains, crystallites and fibrils are even stronger. The processes of burning and desizing were done with burning-desizing machine in which a multifunctional burning machine is combined with a tub where the fabric is made to absorb the desizing solution. 10th IFATCC congress, Barcelona, may 1975) and referred to by C. Duckworth and L.M. What are the benefits of Hot Mercerization? Mercerization The process of mercerisation was developed by John Mercer (UK). This process increases the dyeability of the fabric but does During hot impregnation the lye penetrates faster and more evenly into the yarn core. Mercerizing of cotton is done in three basic stages of materials. Cotton fibers in the yarn bundle can be counted using a low power microscope. YARN MERCERIZING IN CONTINUOUS SHEET (WARP) FORM: There are three types of mercerizing machine-.

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